Profile Laurence is Emeritus Professor of European Law and Jean Monnet Professor at the University of Groningen in Netherlands. His expertise is in: free movement; internal market; public procurement; European tax Law; customs law; trade law; judicial protection; institutional and governance questions. Laurence was appointed to the Chair of European Law in September 1990. He also holds the Jean Monnet Chair which was awarded to the Faculty in 1995, and he leads the Jean Monnet Centre of Excellence at Groningen, recognised by the European Commission in 1999. Laurence graduated from the University of Oxford in Modern History and Modern Languages in 1975 (M.A., 1979); took a M.Sc. in European Studies at the London School of Economics in 1976, and he was called to the Bar of England and Wales by the Middle Temple in 1978. In 1978 Laurence received the Hon. Sir Peter Bristow Award from the Middle Temple, and held a Rotary Foundation Fellowship at the Europa Institute at Utrecht. He took his doctorate in 1985 at Utrecht, with a dissertation on "Prohibiting Restrictions on Trade within the EEC". After completing pupillage in 1979, and then being a lecturer in Law at the University of Liverpool and a door tenant in chambers in London, he worked as an official of the Commission of the European Communities in Brussels from 1983 to 1990 (dealing with competition; free movement of goods, and public procurement). Laurence's principal publications have been in free movement of goods; customs law; public procurement; taxation; and the internal market. He has also published a number of articles on the judicial architecture of the EU and judicial review. He edited and revised the 2nd. (1989) and 3rd. (1998) editions of Kapteyn VerLoren van Themaat's Introduction to the Law of the European Communities and wrote the contributions on customs union and the free movement of goods and on taxation in Vol. 52 of Halsbury’s Laws of England 4th. ed. (1986).